Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) conducts a Combined Geo-Scientist and Geologist Examination (CGGE) for recruitment and selection to the post of Geologist, Geophysicist and Chemist Group ‘A’ in GSI and Junior Hydro-geologist (Scientist ‘B’), Group ‘A’ for Central Ground Water Board.
the Commission releases the Combined Geo-Scientist and Geologist Examination notification in September to shortlist the candidates for the posts. The selection will be based on a competitive examination. Their admission at all the stages of the examination will be purely provisional subject to satisfying the prescribed eligibility conditions.
Selection will be made through Written Examination, Personality Test, Document Verification and Medical Examination.
All these sub-points are described below in this article, along with all the necessary information.
|Exam||Combined Geo-Scientist and Geologist Examination|
|Conducted by||Union Public Services Commission (UPSC)|
|Frequency||Once in a year|
|Numbers of vacancies||102|
|Duration of exam||3 Days|
|No of test centres||19|
|Expected registrations||Approximately 2 lakh|
➼ Combined Geo-Scientist Exam Pattern
Here we have informed about the written exam, all the necessary information like exam pattern, marks weightage, time duration is mentioned below.
Combined Geo-Scientist Examination will be conducted in three stages as follows:
- Stage I: Preliminary Examination – In this examination General studies is common for all streams.
- Stage II: Main Examination
- Stage III: Personality Test
- Satge IV: Document verification
➼ Combined Geo-Scientist Examination: Preliminary Exam Pattern
This examination comprises of two papers, the General Studies is common for all three streams, which is the first paper, the second paper is respective to the streams.
Examination pattern for all three streams is mentioned below in three different tables.
|Stream I: Geologist & Jr. Hydrogeologist|
|Paper I: General Studies||2 Hours||100|
|Paper II: Geology/Hydrogeology||2 Hours||300|
|Stream II: Geophysicist|
|Paper I: General Studies||2 Hours||100|
|Paper II: Geology/Hydrogeology||2 Hours||300|
|Stream II: Chemist|
|Paper I: General Studies||2 Hours||100|
|Paper II: Geology/Hydrogeology||2 Hours||300|
➼ Combined Geo-Scientist Examination: Main Exam Pattern
|Stream I: Geologist|
|Paper I: Geology||3 Hours||200|
|Paper II: Geology||3 Hours||200|
|Paper III: Geology||3 Hours||200|
|Stream I: Geophysicist|
|Paper I: Geophysics||3 Hours||200|
|Paper II: Geophysics||3 Hours||200|
|Paper III: Geophysics||3 Hours||200|
|Stream I: Chemist|
|Paper I: Chemistry||3 Hours||200|
|Paper II: Chemistry||3 Hours||200|
|Paper III: Chemistry||3 Hours||200|
|Stream I: Hydrogeologist|
|Stream I: Jr. Hydrogeologist||Duration||Maximum Marks|
|Paper I: Geology||3 Hours||200|
|Paper II: Geology||3 Hours||200|
|Paper III: Hydrogeology||3 Hours||200|
➼ Combined Geo-Scientist Examination: Personality Test
Interview/ Personality Test of such candidates as may be called by the Commission, carrying a maximum of 200 marks. The candidate will be interviewed by a Board of competent and unbiased observers who will have before them a record of their career. The object of the interview is to assess their suitability for the posts for which they have completed.
Special attention will be paid in the Personality Test to assessing the candidate’s capacity for leadership, initiative and intellectual curiosity, tact and other social qualities, mental and physical energy, powers of practical application, the integrity of character and aptitude for adapting themselves to the field life.
➼ Combined Geo-Scientist Documentation verification
Verification of eligibility conditions with reference to original documents is taken up only after the candidate is qualified for Interview/ Personality Test.
(a) The following will be the subjects for the written examination, for selection to the post of Geologist, Geophysicist and Chemist Group ‘A’ in GSI and Junior Hydro-geologist (Scientist ‘B’), Group ‘A’ for Central Ground Water Board.
(b) Candidates competing for selection to the posts of Geologist, Geophysicist, Chemist Group ‘A’ and Junior Hydrogeologist will be required to appear in all the subjects mentioned against respective category above.
(c) Candidates competing for selection for both the posts of Geologist and Jr. Hydrogeologist will be required to appear in all the subjects mentioned against Categories 1 and 4 above.
(d) If any candidate failed to appear in any one or more of above papers, meant for written examination for selection to the post of Geologist, Geophysicist, Chemist, their candidature shall stand rejected and part of written examination appeared by them shall not be evaluated and counted for any purpose.
(e) The examination in all the subjects will be of essay type and all question papers must be answered in English. The question papers will be set only in English only. The Standard and syllabus of the examination will be as shown on the website. To know more about the syllabus click here.
➼ Combined Geologist & Geo-Scientist Examination preliminary Syllabus
- Current events of national and international
- History of India and Indian National
- Indian and World Geography -Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the
- Indian Polity and Governance -Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues,
- Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector initiatives,
- General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not require subject specialisation
- PhysicalGeology:- Principle of uniformitarianism; origin, differentiation and internal structure of the Earth; the origin of the atmosphere; earthquakes and volcanoes; continental drift, sea-floor spreading, isostasy, orogeny and plate tectonics; geological action of rivers, wind, glaciers, waves; erosional and depositional landforms; weathering processes and products.
- structural geology:- Stress, strain and rheological properties of rocks; planar and linear structures; classification of folds and faults; Mohr’s circle and criteria for failure of rocks; ductile and brittle shear in rocks; study of toposheets, V-rules and outcrop patterns; stereographic projections of structural elements.
- Mineralogy:- Elements of symmetry, notations and indices; Bravais lattices; chemical classification of minerals; isomorphism, polymorphism, solid solution and exsolution; silicate structures; physical and optical properties of common rock-forming minerals- olivine, garnet, pyroxene, amphibole, mica, feldspar and quartz.
- IgneousPetrology:- Magma types and their evolution; IUGS classification of igneous rocks; forms, structures and textures of igneous rocks; applications of binary and ternary phase diagrams in petrogenesis; magmatic differentiation and assimilation; petrogenesis of granites, basalts, komatiites and alkaline rocks (carbonatite, kimberlite, lamprophyre and nepheline syenite).
- MetamorphicPetrology:- Limits, types and controls of metamorphism; metamorphic structures- slate, schist and gneiss; metamorphic textures- pre, syn and post tectonic porphyroblasts; the concept of the metamorphic zone, isograd and facies; geothermal gradients, facies series and plate tectonics.
- Sedimentology:- Origin of sediments; sedimentary textures, grain-size scale; primary sedimentary structures; classification of sandstone and carbonate rocks; siliciclastic depositional environments and sedimentary facies; diagenesis of carbonate sediments.
- Palaeontology:- Fossils and processes of fossilization; the concept of species and binomial nomenclature; morphology and classification of invertebrates (Trilobites, Brachiopods, Lamellibranchs, Gastropods and Cephalopods); evolution in Equidae and Hominidae; microfossils-Foraminifera, Ostracoda; Gondwana flora.
- Stratigraphy:- Law of superposition; stratigraphic nomenclature- lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy; Archaean cratonic nuclei of Peninsular India (Dharwar, Singhbhum, and Aravalli cratons); Proterozoic mobile belts (Central Indian Tectonic Zone, Aravalli-Delhi and the Eastern Ghats); Purana sedimentary basins (Cuddapah and Vindhyan); Phanerozoic stratigraphy of India- Spiti, Kashmir, Damodar valley, Kutch, Trichinopoly, Siwaliks and Indo-Gangetic alluvium.
- EconomicGeology:- Properties of mineral deposits- form, mineral assemblage, texture, rock- ore association and relationship; magmatic, sedimentary, metamorphic, hydrothermal, supergene and weathering-related processes of ore formation; processes of formation of coal and petroleum; distribution and geological characteristics of major mineral and hydrocarbon deposits of India.
- Hydrogeology:- Groundwater occurrence and aquifer characteristics, porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity; Darcy’s Law in homogenous and heterogeneous media; Bernoulli equation, Reynold’s number; composition of groundwater; application of H and O isotopes in groundwater studies; artificial recharge of groundwater.
- Solid EarthGeophysics:- Introduction to Geophysics and its branches. Solar system: origin, formation and characteristics of planets, Earth: shape and rotation. Gravity and magnetic fields of the earth. Geomagnetism, elements of earth’s magnetism, Rock and mineral magnetism, Elastic waves, types and their propagation characteristics, the internal structure of the earth, a variety of physical properties in the interior of the earth. Plate tectonics, Earthquakes and their causes, focal depth, epicentre, Intensity and Magnitude scales, Energy of earthquakes, Seismicity.
- Mathematical Methods in geophysics:- Elements of vector analysis, Vector algebra, Properties of scalars, vectors and tensors, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Gauss’s divergence theorem, Stoke’s theorem. Matrices, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors and their applications in geophysics. Newton’s Law of gravitation, Gravity potential and gravity fields due to bodies of different geometric shapes. Basic Forces of Nature and their strength: Gravitational, Electromagnetic, Strong and Weak forces. Conservation Laws in Physics: Energy, Linear and angular momentum. Rigid body motion and moment of inertia. Basics of the special theory of relativity and Lorentz transformation.Fundamental concepts of inverse theory, Definition of inversion and application to Geophysics. Forward and Inverse problems. Probability theory, Random variables, binomial, Poisson and normal distributions. Linear algebra, Linear ordinary differential equations of first and second order. Partial differential equations (Laplace, wave and heat equations in two and three dimensions). Elements of numerical techniques: the root of functions, interpolation, and extrapolation, integration by trapezoid and Simpson’s rule, solution of the first-order differential equation using Runge-Kutta method, Introduction to finite difference and finite element methods.
- Electromagnetism:- Electrostatic and magneto-static fields, Coulomb’s law, Electrical permittivity and dielectric constant, Lorentz force and their applications. Ampere’s law, Biot and Savart’s law, Gauss’s Theorem, Poisson’s equation. Laplace’s equation: solution of Laplace’s equation in Cartesian coordinates, use of Laplace’s equation in the solutions of geophysical and electrostatic problems. Displacement current, Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. Maxwell’s equations. Boundary conditions. Wave equation, plane electromagnetic waves in free space, dielectric and conducting media, electromagnetic vector and scalar potentials.
- GeophysicalProspecting:- Elements of geophysical methods: Principles, data reduction and applications of gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic and well logging methods. Fundamentals of seismic methods: Fermat’s Principle, Snell’s Law, Energy portioning, Reflection and transmission coefficients, Reflection and Refraction from layered media. Signals and systems, sampling theorem, aliasing effect, Fourier series and periodic waveforms, Fourier transform and its application, Laplace transforms Convolution, Auto and cross-correlations, Power spectrum, Delta function, unit step function.
- Remote Sensing and thermodynamics:- Fundamentals of remote sensing, electromagnetic spectrum, energy- frequency-wavelength relationship, Stefan-Boltzmann Law, Wien’s Law, electromagnetic energy and its interactions in the atmosphere and with terrain features. Planck’s Radiation Law. Laws of thermodynamics and thermodynamic potential.
- Nuclear Physics and radiometry:- Basic nuclear properties: size, shape, charge distribution, spin and parity; Binding energy, semi-empirical mass formula; Fission and fusion. Principles of radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma decays Photoelectric and Compton Effect, Pair Production, radioactivity decay law, the radioactivity of rocks and minerals, Radiation Detectors: Ionization chamber, G-M counter, Scintillation counter and Gamma-ray spectrometer. Matter Waves and wave-particle duality, Electron spin, Spectrum of Hydrogen, helium and alkali atoms.
- Chemical periodicity:- Schrödinger equation for the H-atom. Radial distribution curves for 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d orbitals. Electronic configurations of multi-electron atoms. Periodic table, group trends and periodic trends in physical properties. Classification of elements on the basis of electronic configuration. Modern IUPAC Periodic table. General characteristics of s, p, d and f block elements. Effective nuclear charges, screening effects, atomic radii, ionic radii, covalent radii. Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy and electronegativity. Group trends and periodic trends in these properties in respect of s-, p- and d-block elements. General trends of variation of electronic configuration, elemental forms, metallic nature, magnetic properties, catenation and catalytic properties, oxidation states, aqueous and redox chemistry in common oxidation states, properties and reactions of important compounds such as hydrides, halides, oxides, oxy-acids, complex chemistry in respect of s-block and p-block elements.
- Chemical bonding and structure:-
Ionic bonding: Size effects, radius ratio rules and their limitations. Packing of ions in crystals, lattice energy, Born-Landé equation and its applications, Born-Haber cycle and its applications. Solvation energy, polarizing power and polarizability, ionic potential, Fagan’s rules. Defects in solids.
Covalent bonding: Valence Bond Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, hybridization. Concept of resonance, resonance energy, resonance structures.
Coordinate bonding: Werner theory of coordination compounds, double salts and complex salts. Ambidentate and polydentate ligands, chelate complexes. IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds. Coordination numbers, Geometrical isomerism. Stereoisomerism in square planar and octahedral complexes.
- Acids and bases:- Chemical and ionic equilibrium. Strengths of acids and bases. Ionization of weak acids and bases in aqueous solutions, application of Ostwald’s dilution law, ionization constants, ionic product of water, pH-scale, the effect of temperature on pH, buffer solutions and their pH values, buffer action & buffer capacity; different types of buffers and Henderson’s equation.
- The theoretical basis of quantitative inorganic analysis:-
Volumetric Analysis: Equivalent weights, different types of solutions, normal and molar solutions. Primary and secondary standard substances.
General principles of different types of titrations: i) acid-base, ii) redox, iii) complexometric, iv) Precipitation. Types of indicators – i) acid-base, ii) redox iii) metal-ion indicators.
- Kinetic theory and the gaseous state:- Kinetic theory of gases, the average kinetic energy of translation, Boltzmann constant and absolute scale of temperature. Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of speeds. Calculations of average, root mean square and most probable velocities. Collision diameter; collision number and mean free path; frequency of binary collisions; wall collision and rate of effusion.
- Chemical thermodynamics and chemical equilibrium:- First law and its applications to chemical problems. Thermodynamic functions. Total differentials and state functions. Free expansion, Joule- Thomson coefficient and inversion temperature. Hess’ law. Applications of Second law of thermodynamics. Gibbs function (G) and Helmholtz function (A), Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, criteria for thermodynamic equilibrium and spontaneity of chemical processes.
- Solutions of-electrolytes:- Colligative properties of solutions, Raoult’s Law, relative lowering of vapour pressure, osmosis and osmotic pressure; elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point of solvents. The solubility of gases in liquids and solid solutions.
- Electrochemistry:- Cell constant, specific conductance and molar conductance. Kohlrausch’s law of independent migration of ions, ion conductance and ionic mobility. Equivalent and molar conductance at infinite dilution. Debye-Hückel theory. Application of conductance measurements. Conductometric titrations. Determination of transport number by moving boundary method.
- Basic organic chemistry:- Delocalized chemical bond, resonance, conjugation, hyperconjugation, hybridisation, orbital pictures of bonding sp3, sp2, sp: C-C, C-N and C-O system), bond polarization and bond polarizability. Reactive intermediates: General methods of formation, relative stability and reactivity of carbocations, carbanions and free radicals.
- Stereochemistry:- Configuration and chirality (simple treatment of elements of symmetry), optical isomerism of compounds containing two to three stereogenic centres, R,S nomenclature, geometrical isomerism in compounds containing two C=C double bonds (E, Z naming), and simple cyclic systems, Newman projection (ethane and substituted ethane).
- Types of organic reactions:-
Aliphatic substitution reactions: SN1, SN2 mechanisms, stereochemistry, relative reactivity in aliphatic substitutions. Effect of substrate structure, attacking nucleophile, leaving group and reaction medium and competitive reactions.
Elimination reactions: E1, E2, mechanisms, stereochemistry, relative reactivity in aliphatic eliminations. Effect of substrate structure, attacking the base, leaving group, reaction medium and competitive reactions, the orientation of the double bond, Saytzeff and Hoffman rules.
Addition reactions: Electrophilic, nucleophilic and radical addition reactions at carbon-carbon double bonds.
Electrophilic and nucleophilic aromatic substitution: Electrophilic (halogenation, sulphonation, nitration, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation), nucleophilic (simple SNAr, SN1 and aryne reactions).
- MolecularRearrangements:- Acid induced rearrangement and Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements. Neighbouring group participation.
➼ Combined Geologist & Geo-Scientist Examination Main Syllabus
Section A. Physical geology and remote sensing
Evolution of Earth; Earth’s internal structure; earthquakes and volcanoes; principles of geodesy, isostasy; weathering- processes and products; geomorphic landforms formed by the action of rivers, wind, glaciers, waves and groundwater; features of the ocean floor; continental shelf, slope and rise; concepts of landscape evolution; major geomorphic features of India- coastal, peninsular and extra peninsular.
Electromagnetic spectrum; electromagnetic bands in remote sensing; spectral signatures of soil, rock, water and vegetation; thermal, near infra-red and microwave remote sensing; digital image processing; LANDSAT, IRS and SPOT- characteristics and use; aerial photos- types, scale, parallax, relief displacement; elements of image interpretation.
Section B. Structural geology
Principles of geological mapping; kinematic and dynamic analysis of deformation; stress-strain relationships for elastic, plastic and viscous materials; measurement of strain in deformed rocks; structural analysis of fold, cleavage, boudin, lineation, joint, and fault; stereographic projection of linear and planar structures; superposed deformation; deformation at microscale- dynamic and static recrystallisation, controls of strain rate and temperature on the development of microfabrics; brittle and ductile shear zones; time relationship between crystallisation and deformation, calculation of paleo stress.
Section C. Sedimentology
Classification of sedimentary rocks; sedimentary textures- grain size, roundness, sphericity, shape and fabric; quantitative grain size analysis; sediment transport and deposition- fluid and sediment gravity flows, laminar and turbulent flows, Reynold’s number, Froude number, grain entrainment, Hjulstrom diagram, bedload and suspension load transport; primary sedimentary structures; penecontemporaneous deformation structure; biogenic structures; principles and application of paleocurrent analysis; composition and significance of different types of sandstone, limestone, banded iron formation, mudstone, conglomerate; carbonate diagenesis and dolomitisation; sedimentary environments and facies- facies models for fluvial, glacial, deltaic, siliciclastic shallow and deep marine environments; carbonate platforms- types and facies models; sedimentation in major tectonic settings; principles of sequence stratigraphy- concepts and factors controlling base level changes, parasequence, clinoform, systems tract, unconformity and sequence boundary.
Section D. Paleontology
The fossil record and geological time scale; modes of preservation of fossils and concept of taphonomy; body- and ichnofossils, species concept, organic evolution, Ediacaran Fauna; morphology and time range of Graptolites, Trilobites, Brachiopods, Lamellibranchs, Gastropods, Cephalopods, Echinoids and Corals; evolutionary trends in Trilobites, Lamellibranchs, Gastropods and Cephalopods; micropaleontology- methods of preparation of microfossils, the morphology of microfossil groups (Foraminifera, Ostracoda), fossil spores, pollen and dinoflagellates; Gondwana plant fossils and their significance; vertebrate life through ages, evolution in Proboscidea, Equidae and Hominidae; applications of paleontological data in stratigraphy, paleoecology and palaeoclimatology; mass extinctions.
Section E. Stratigraphy
Principles of stratigraphy- code of stratigraphic nomenclature of India; lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy; principles of stratigraphic correlation; characteristics of Archean granite-greenstone belts; Indian stratigraphy- geological evolution of Archean nucleii (Dharwar, Bastar, Singhbhum, Aravalli and Bundelkhand); Proterozoic mobile belts- Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt, Southern Granulite Terrain, Central Indian Tectonic Zone, Aravalli-Delhi Belt, North Singhbhum Mobile Belt; Proterozoic sedimentary basins (Cuddapah and Vindhyan); Phanerozoic stratigraphy- Paleozoic (Spiti, Kashmir and Kumaon), Mesozoic (Spiti, Kutch, Narmada Valley and Trichinopoly), Gondwana Supergroup, Cenozoic (Assam, Bengal basins, Garhwal-Shimla Himalayas); Siwaliks; boundary problems in Indian stratigraphy.
Section A. Mineralogy
Symmetry, motif, Miller indices; the concept of the unit cell and Bravais lattices; 32 crystal classes; types of bonding, Pauling’s rules and coordination polyhedra; crystal imperfections- defects, twinning and zoning; polymorphism, pseudomorphism, isomorphism and solid solution; physical properties of minerals; polarising microscope and accessory plate; optical properties of minerals- double refraction, polarisation, pleochroism, a sign of elongation, interference figure and optic sign; structure, composition, physical and optical properties of major rock-forming minerals- olivine, garnet, aluminosilicates, pyroxene, amphibole, mica, feldspar, clay, silica and spinel group.
Section B. Geochemistry and isotope geology
Chemical composition and characteristics of atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere; geochemical cycles; meteorites- types and composition; Goldschmidt’s classification of elements; fractionation of elements in minerals/rocks; Nernst’s partition coefficient (compatible and incompatible elements), Nernst-Berthelot partition coefficient and bulk partition coefficient; Fick’s laws of diffusion and activity composition relation (Raoult’s and Henry’s law); application of trace elements in petrogenesis; principles of equilibrium and Rayleigh fractionation; REE patterns, Eh and pH diagrams and mineral stability.
Half-life and decay equation; dating of minerals and rocks with potassium-argon, rubidium-strontium, uranium-lead and samarium-neodymium isotopes; petrogenetic implications of samarium-neodymium and rubidium-strontium systems; stable isotope geochemistry of carbon, oxygen and sulphur and their applications in geology; monazite chemical dating.
Section C. Igneous petrology
Viscosity, temperature and pressure relationships in magmas; IUGS classification of plutonic and volcanic rocks; nucleation and growth of minerals in magmatic rocks, development of igneous textures; magmatic evolution (differentiation, assimilation, mixing and mingling); types of mantle melting (batch, fractional and dynamic); binary (albite-anorthite, forsterite-silica and diopside-anorthite) and ternary (diopside-forsterite-silica, diopside-forsterite- anorthite and nepheline-kalsilite-silica) phase diagrams and relevance to magmatic crystallization; petrogenesis of granites, basalts, ophiolite suite, komatiites, syenites, bonnets, anorthosites and layered complexes, and alkaline rocks (carbonatite, kimberlite, lamproite, lamprophyre); mantle metasomatism, hotspot magmatism and large igneous provinces of India.
Section D. Metamorphic petrology
Limits and Physico-chemical controls (pressure, temperature, fluids and bulk rock composition) of metamorphism; the concept of zones, facies, isograds and facies series, geothermal gradients and tectonics of orogenic belts; structures, microstructures and textures of regional and contact metamorphic rocks; representation of metamorphic assemblages (ACF, AKF and AFM diagrams); equilibrium concept in thermodynamics; laws of thermodynamics, enthalpy, entropy, Gibb’s free energy, chemical potential, fugacity and activity; tracing the chemical reactions in P-T space, phase rule and mineralogical phase rule in the multi-component system; Clausius-Clapeyron equation and slopes of metamorphic reactions; heat flow, diffusion and mass transfer; Fourier’s law of heat conduction; geothermobarometry; mass and energy change during fluid-rock interactions; charnockite problem, the formation of skarns, progressive and retrogressive metamorphism of pelitic, calcareous and basic rocks; P-T-t path and tectonic setting.
Section E. Geodynamics
Phase transitions and seismic discontinuities in the Earth; seismic waves and relation between Vp, Vs and density; seismic and petrological Moho; rheology of rocks and fluids (Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids); rock magnetism and its origin; polarity reversals, polar wandering and supercontinent cycles; continental drift, seafloor spreading; gravity and magnetic anomalies of ocean floors and their significance; mantle plumes and their origin; plate tectonics- types of plate boundaries and their inter-relationship; heat flow and heat production of the crust.
Section A. Economic geology
Ore minerals and industrial minerals; physical and optical properties of ore minerals; ore textures and paragenesis; characteristics of mineral deposits- spatial and temporal distribution, rock-ore association; syngenetic and epigenetic deposits, forms of ore bodies, stratiform and strata-bound deposits; ore-forming processes- source and migration of ore constituents and ore fluid, mechanism of ore deposition; magmatic and pegmatitic deposits (chromite, Ti- magnetite, diamond, Cu-Ni sulphide, PGE, REE, muscovite, rare metals); hydrothermal deposits (porphyry Cu-Mo, greisen Sn-W, skarn, VMS and SEDEX type sulphide deposits, orogenic gold); sedimentary deposits (Fe, Mn, phosphorite, placer); supergene deposits (Cu, Al, Ni and Fe); metamorphic and metamorphosed deposits (Mn, graphite); fluid inclusions in ore mineral assemblage- physical and chemical properties, microthermometry; stable isotope (S, C, O, H) in ore genesis- geothermometry, source of ore constituents; global tectonics and mineralisation.
Section B. Indian mineral deposits and mineral economics
Distribution of mineral deposits in Indian shield; geological characteristics of important industrial mineral and ore deposits in India- chromite, diamond, muscovite, Cu-Pb-Zn, Sn-W, Au, Fe-Mn, bauxite; minerals used in refractory, fertilizer, ceramic, cement, glass, paint industries; minerals used as abrasive, filler; building stones.
Strategic, critical and essential minerals; India’s status in mineral production; co-products and by-products; consumption, substitution and conservation of minerals; National Mineral Policy; Mineral Concession Rules; marine mineral resources and laws of the sea.
Section C. Mineral exploration
Stages of exploration; scope, objectives and methods of prospecting, regional exploration and detailed exploration; geological, geochemical and geobotanical methods; litho-, bio-, soil geochemical surveys, mobility and dispersion of elements, geochemical anomalies; ore controls and guides; pitting, trenching, drilling; sampling, assaying, ore reserve estimation; categorization of ore reserves; geophysical methods- ground and airborne surveys; gravity, magnetic, electrical and seismic methods of mineral exploration.
Section D. Fuel geology and Engineering geology
Coal and its properties; proximate and ultimate analysis; different varieties and ranks of coal; the concept of coal maturity, peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite coal; the origin of coal, coalification process; lithotypes, microlithotypes and maceral groups of coal; mineral and organic matter in coal; lignite and coal deposits of India; origin, migration and entrapment of natural hydrocarbons; characteristics of the source and reservoir rocks; structural, stratigraphic and mixed traps; geological, geochemical and geophysical methods of hydrocarbon exploration; petroliferous basins of India; geological characteristics and genesis of major types of U deposits and their distribution in India.
Engineering properties of rocks; geological investigations in construction of dams, reservoirs, tunnels, bridges, highways and coastal protection structures; geologic considerations of construction materials.
Section E. Environmental geology and Natural hazards
Stefan-Boltzmann equation and planetary temperature; cause and effects of global climate change; Earth’s radiation budget; greenhouse gases and effect; examples of positive and negative feedback mechanisms; the biogeochemical cycle of carbon; geological investigations of nuclear waste disposal sites; marginal marine environments- estuaries, mangroves and lagoons; ozone hole depletion, ocean acidification, coral bleaching, Milankovitch cycle, sea-level rise, eutrophication and acid rain; environmental impacts of urbanization, mining and hydropower projects; water pollution, waterlogging and soil erosion; Himalayan glaciers; causes and consequences of earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunami, floods, landslides, coastal erosion, droughts and desertification; application of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) in environmental management.
A1. Errors in quantitative analysis:- Accuracy and precision, sensitivity, the specific standard deviation in analysis, classification of errors and their minimization, significant figures, criteria for rejection of data, Q-test, t-test, and F-test, control chart, sampling methods, sampling errors, standard reference materials, statistical data treatment.
A2. Separation Methods:- Chromatographic analysis: Basic principles of chromatography (partition, adsorption and ion exchange), column chromatography, plate concept, plate height (HETP), normal phase and reversed-phase concept, thin layer chromatography, frontal analysis, principles of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC), and Ion- exchange chromatography.
Solvent extraction: Classification, principle and efficiency of the technique, mechanism of extraction, extraction by solvation and chelation, qualitative and quantitative aspects of solvent extraction, extraction of metal ions from aqueous solutions.
A3. Spectroscopic methods of analysis:- Lambert-Beer’s Law and its limitations.
UV-Visible Spectroscopy: Basic principles of UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Instrumentation consisting of source, monochromator, grating and detector, spectrophotometric determinations (estimation of metal ions from aqueous solutions, determination of the composition of metal complexes using Job’s method of continuous variation and mole ratio method).
Infra-red Spectrometry: Basic principles of instrumentation (choice of source, monochromator and detector) for single and double beam instruments, sampling techniques.
Flame atomic absorption and emission spectrometry: Basic principles of instrumentation (choice of source, monochromator, detector, choice of flame and burner design), techniques of atomization and sample introduction, method of background correction, sources of chemical interferences and methods of removal, techniques for the quantitative estimation of trace level metal ions. Basic principles and theory of AAS. Three different modes of AAS – Flame-AAS, VG-AAS, and GF-AAS. Single beam and double beam AAS. The function of Hollow Cathode Lamp (HCL) and Electrode Discharge Lamp (EDL). Different types of detectors used in AAS. Qualitative and quantitative analysis.
A4. Thermal methods of analysis:- Theory of thermogravimetry (TG), a basic principle of instrumentation, techniques for quantitative analysis of Ca and Mg compounds.
A5. X-ray methods of Analysis:- Introduction, the theory of X-ray generation, X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence methods, instrumentation and applications. Qualitative and quantitative measurements. Powder diffraction method.
A6. Inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy:- Theory and principles, plasma generation, the utility of peristaltic pump, sampler– skimmer systems, ion lens, quadrupole mass analyzer, dynode / solid-state detector, different types of interferences- spectroscopic and non-spectroscopic interferences, isobaric and molecular interferences, applications.
A7. Analysis of geological materials:- Analysis of minerals and ores- estimation of (i) CaCO3, MgCO3 in dolomite (ii) Fe2O3, Al2O3, and TiO2 in bauxite (iii) MnO and MnO2 in pyrolusite. Analysis of metals and alloys: (i) Cu and Zn in brass (ii) Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Al and Ni in bronze
(iii) Cr, Mn, Ni, and P in steel (iv) Pb, Sb, Sn in ‘type metal’.
Introduction to petroleum: constituents and petroleum fractionation. Analysis of petroleum products: specific gravity, viscosity, Doctor test, aniline point, colour determination, cloud point, pour point. Determination of water, neutralization value (acid and base numbers), ash content, Determination of lead in petroleum.
Types of coal and coke, composition, preparation of the sample for proximate and ultimate analysis, calorific value by bomb calorimetry.
B1. Unstable, uncharged intermediates:- Structure and reactivity of carbenes and nitrenes and their rearrangements (Reimer-Tiemann, Hoffman, Curtius, Lossen, and Schimdt,).
B2. Addition reactions:-
Addition to C-C multiple bonds: Mechanism of addition involving electrophiles, nucleophiles and free radicals (polymerization reactions of alkenes and substituted alkenes), Ziegler-Natta catalyst for polymerization, polyurethane, and conducting polymers; an addition to conjugated systems (Diels-Alder reaction), orientation and reactivity (on simple cis– and trans– alkenes).
Addition to carbon-heteroatom multiple bonds: Addition to C=O double bond, structure and reactivity, hydration, the addition of ROH, RSH, CN-, bisulphite, amine derivatives, hydride ions.
B3: Reactions at the carbonyl group:- Cannizzaro, Aldol, Perkin, Claisen ester, benzoin, benzil-benzilic acid rearrangement, Mannich, Dieckmann, Michael, Strobe, Darzen, Wittig, Doebner, Knoevenagel, Reformatsky reactions.
B4. Oxidation and Reduction:- Reduction of C=C, Meerwein-Pondorf reaction, Wolff-Kishner and Birch reduction.
Oxidation of C=C, hydration, hydroxylation, hydroboration, ozonolysis, epoxidation, Sharpless epoxidation.
B5. Electrocyclic Reactions:- Molecular orbital symmetry, frontier orbitals of ethylene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,3,5- hexatriene, allyl system, FMO approach, pericyclic reactions, Woodward- Hoffman correlation diagram method and perturbation molecular orbital (PMO) approach for the explanation of pericyclic reactions under thermal and photochemical conditions. Simple cases of Norrish type-I and type-II reactions. Conrotatory and disrotatory motions of (4n) and (4n+2) polyenes with emphasis on [2+2] and [4+2] cycloadditions, sigmatropic rearrangements- shift of H and carbon moieties, Claisen, Cope, Sommerlet-Hauser rearrangement.
B6. Spectroscopic methods of analysis:-
Infrared spectroscopy:- Characteristic frequencies of organic molecules and the interpretation of spectra. Modes of molecular vibrations, characteristic stretching frequencies of O-H, N-H, C-H, C-D, C=C, C=N, C=O functions; factors affecting stretching frequencies.
Ultraviolet spectroscopy:- Chromophores, auxochromes. Electronic transitions (σ−σ*, n-σ*, π-π* and n-π*), relative positions of λmax considering conjugative effect, steric effect, solvent effect, red shift (bathochromic shift), blue shift (hypsochromic shift), hyperchromic effect, hypochromic effect (typical examples). Woodward rules. Applications of UV spectroscopy to conjugated dienes, trienes, unsaturated carbonyl compounds and aromatic compounds.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry:- (Proton and Carbon-13 NMR) Nuclear spin, NMR active nuclei, principle of proton magnetic resonance, equivalent and non-equivalent protons. Measurement of spectra, the chemical shift, shielding/deshielding of protons, upfield and downfield shifts, intensity of NMR signals and integration factors affecting the chemical shifts: spin-spin coupling to 13C IH-IH first-order coupling: some simple IH-IH splitting patterns: the magnitude of IH-IH coupling constants, diamagnetic anisotropy.
Mass spectrometry:- Basic Principles, the mass spectrometer, isotope abundances; the molecular ion, metastable ions. McLafferty rearrangement.
➼ Eligibility Criteria
A candidate must be either:
- (a) a Citizen of India, or
- (b) a subject of Nepal, or
- (c) a subject of Bhutan, or
- (d) a Tibetan refugee who came over to India before January 1, 1962, with the intention of permanently settling in India, or
- (e) a person of Indian origin who has migrated from Pakistan, Burma, Sri Lanka or East African Countries of Kenya, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zaire, and Ethiopia or from Vietnam with the intention of permanently settling in India.
- Provided that a candidate belonging to categories (b), (c), (d) and (e) above shall be a person in whose favour a certificate of eligibility has been issued by the Government of India.
- A candidate in whose case a certificate of eligibility is necessary may be admitted to the examination but the offer of appointment may be given only after the necessary eligibility certificate has been issued to him/her by the Government of India.
2) Educational Qualification:
1. For Geologists Gr ‘A’ in Geological Survey of India: Candidates should have obtained Master’s degree in Geological Science or Geology or Applied Geology or Geo-Exploration or Mineral Exploration or Engineering Geology or Earth Science and Resource Management or Marine Geology or Oceanography and Geochemistry or Geological Technology or Coastal Area Studies or Petroleum Geosciences or Petroleum Exploration or Geophysical Technology from a recognized university.
2. For Geophysicists Gr ‘A’ in Geological Survey of India: Candidates should have obtained M.Sc. in Physics or Applied Physics or M.Sc. (Geophysics) or Integrated M.Sc. (Exploration Geophysics) or M.Sc (Applied Geophysics) or M.Sc. (Marine Geophysics) Or M.Sc. (Tech.) (Applied Geophysics) from a recognized university.
3. For Chemists Group ‘A‘: in Geological Survey of India: Candidates should hold M.Sc. in Chemistry or Applied Chemistry or Analytical Chemistry from a recognized university.
4. For Junior Hydrogeologists (Scientist B), Group ‘A’ in Central Ground Water Board: Master’s degree in Geology or Applied Geology or Marine Geology from a recognized university.
- The candidates possessing common qualifications in (i) (a) & (ii) (a) can apply for both the categories
- The candidates who will be eligible but who has taken a degree from a foreign university recognized by the government may also apply to the Commission and may be admitted to the examination.
3) Age Limit :
(a) For Geologist and Geophysicist and Chemist (Group ‘A’) in the Geological Survey of India, an attached office of Ministry of Mines, Government of India: The candidates must have attained the age of 21 years and must not have attained the age of 32 years as on January 1, 2020, i.e. he/she must have been born not earlier than January 2, 1988, and not later than January 1, 1998.
(b) For Jr. Hydrogeologist (Scientist B) (Group A) in Central Ground Water Board, Ministry of Water Resources: The candidates must have attained the age of 21 years and must not have attained at the age of 35 years as on January 1, 2019, i.e. he/she must have been born not later than January 2, 1984, and not later than January 1, 1999.
- There is an age relaxation of five years for ex-servicemen category candidates and Scheduled Caste/Scheduled tribal. For OBC category, it is three years while for deaf-mute, blind and orthopedically disabled category applicants, it is 10 years.
➼ CGS Interview
The interview is one of the most important parts of the CGS exam. It’s very necessary for you to clearly state your thoughts to the interviewers.
As a result, you need to focus on brightening your communication skills and body language. Some candidates are blessed with such skills.
Some require practice to become excellent communicators of their ideas. Candidates with no communication skills can contact those who have already appeared in the Civil Services Examinations, to get useful suggestions from them.
Because this portion of the Civil Services Examination is not designed to judge someone’s expertise on a subject.
However, a candidate must speak from the heart or answer all questions honestly.
There is a common misconception among the candidates that if they lie about their hobby just to get through the interview, it will never help them.
Interviewers are not just to ask questions, but to evaluate a candidate’s personality and ability to evaluate whether a ‘no’ is a ‘no’, it cannot be changed to a ‘yes’ and vice versa.
➼ How to apply for Geo scientist?
- Candidates are required to apply online by using the official website of UPSC, i.e. www.upsconline.nic.in, brief instructions for filling up the online application form are available on the official website.
- Online application form containing two stages viz. Part-I and Part-II. So, candidates are advised to complete the form as per the instructions available on the official website.
- The candidates are required to pay a fee of Rs. 200/- [excepting SC/ST/Female/PH candidates who are exempted from payment of fee] either by depositing the money in any branch of SBI by cash or by using the net banking facility of the State Bank of India or by using any Visa/Master/RuPay Credit/Debit Card.
- Before starting filling up an online application, a candidate must have his/her photograph and signature duly scanned in the .jpg format in such a manner that each file should not exceed 40 KB and must not be less than 3 KB each in size for the photograph and 1 KB for the signature.